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Parents,                                                   

If you are concerned your child might be using drugs we want to help. We offer products that you can use to test your kids in the privacy of your own home. Test for a specific drug or use our 5-panel kit to test for several drugs at once**. Many parents have the suspicion their child could be experimenting with drugs, but don’t know for sure. We have compiled a great deal of information on our site we hope will be helpful to you and your family.

Drug Information: (Street names, Drug class and which test to use, general information)

It is important to note that many of the drugs discussed may have hundreds of slang or street names. We have listed several of the more popular street names that are used.

**If you do use a test kit from www.DrugTest4less.com to test your child and the test comes back positive, we strongly advise you to get confirmation from a lab with the use of GC/MS, better known as Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. GC/MS has been established as the preferred confirmatory method by the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA).


Cocaine and Crack

Street names: Coke, snow, powder, Big C, C

Test: Our Cocaine, COC or 2-Panel units tests for both Cocaine and Marijuana

Info: Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug of abuse. Once having tried cocaine, an individual cannot predict or control the extent to which he or she will continue to use the drug.

The major routes of administration of cocaine are sniffing or snorting, injecting, and smoking (including free-base and crack cocaine). Snorting is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. Injecting is the act of using a needle to release the drug directly into the bloodstream. Smoking involves inhaling cocaine vapor or smoke into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream is as rapid as by injection.

"Crack" is the street name given to cocaine that has been processed from cocaine hydrochloride to a free base for smoking. Rather than requiring the more volatile method of processing cocaine using ether, crack cocaine is processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water and heated to remove the hydrochloride, thus producing a form of cocaine that can be smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when the mixture is smoked (heated), presumably from the sodium bicarbonate.

There is great risk whether cocaine is ingested by inhalation (snorting), injection, or smoking. It appears that compulsive cocaine use may develop even more rapidly if the substance is smoked rather than snorted. Smoking allows extremely high doses of cocaine to reach the brain very quickly and brings an intense and immediate high. The injecting drug user is at risk for transmitting or acquiring HIV infection/AIDS if needles or other injection equipment are shared.

Health Hazards

Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that interferes with the reabsorption process of dopamine, a chemical messenger associated with pleasure and movement. Dopamine is released as part of the brain's reward system and is involved in the high that characterizes cocaine consumption.

Physical effects of cocaine use include constricted peripheral blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. The duration of cocaine's immediate euphoric effects, which include hyper-stimulation, reduced fatigue, and mental clarity, depends on the route of administration. The faster the absorption, the more intense the high. On the other hand, the faster the absorption, the shorter the duration of action. The high from snorting may last 15 to 30 minutes, while that from smoking may last 5 to 10 minutes. Increased use can reduce the period of stimulation.

Some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. An appreciable tolerance to the high may be developed, and many addicts report that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first exposure. Scientific evidence suggests that the powerful neuropsychologic reinforcing property of cocaine is responsible for an individual's continued use, despite harmful physical and social consequences. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. However, there is no way to determine who is prone to sudden death.

High doses of cocaine and/or prolonged use can trigger paranoia. Smoking crack cocaine can produce a particularly aggressive paranoid behavior in users. When addicted individuals stop using cocaine, they often become depressed. This also may lead to further cocaine use to alleviate depression. Prolonged cocaine snorting can result in ulceration of the mucous membrane of the nose and can damage the nasal septum enough to cause it to collapse. Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest.

Added Danger: Coca ethylene

When people mix cocaine and alcohol consumption, they are compounding the danger each drug poses and unknowingly forming a complex chemical experiment within their bodies. NIDA-funded researchers have found that the human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, that intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects, while possibly increasing the risk of sudden death.

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Marijuana

Street names: Pot, weed, hooch, hashish

Test: Marijuana, THC or our 2-Panel unit tests for both Marijuana and Cocaine

Info: Marijuana is a green or gray mixture of dried, shredded flowers and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. There are over 200 slang terms for marijuana including "pot," "herb," "weed," "boom," "Mary Jane," "gangster," and "chronic." It is usually smoked as a cigarette (called a joint or a nail) or in a pipe or bong. In recent years, marijuana has appeared in blunts, which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana, often in combination with another drug, such as crack. Some users also mix marijuana into foods or use it to brew tea.

The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). In 1988, it was discovered that the membranes of certain nerve cells contain protein receptors that bind THC. Once securely in place, THC kicks off a series of cellular reactions that ultimately lead to the high that users experience when they smoke marijuana. The short term effects of marijuana use include problems with memory and learning; distorted perception; difficulty in thinking and problem-solving; loss of coordination; and increased heart rate, anxiety, and panic attacks.

Scientists have found that whether an individual has positive or negative sensations after smoking marijuana can be influenced by heredity. A recent study demonstrated that identical male twins were more likely than non-identical male twins to report similar responses to marijuana use, indicating a genetic basis for their sensations. Identical twins share all of their genes, and fraternal twins share about half.

Environmental factors such as the availability of marijuana, expectations about how the drug would affect them, the influence of friends and social contacts, and other factors that differentiate identical twins' experiences also were found to have an important effect; however, it also was discovered that the twins' shared or family environment before age 18 had no detectable influence on their response to marijuana.

Health Hazards

Effects of Marijuana on the Brain

Researchers have found that THC changes the way in which sensory information gets into and is processed by the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a component of the brain's limbic system that is crucial for learning, memory, and the integration of sensory experiences with emotions and motivations. Investigations have shown that neurons in the information processing system of the hippocampus and the activity of the nerve fibers in this region are suppressed by THC. In addition, researchers have discovered that learned behaviors, which depend on the hippocampus, also deteriorate via this mechanism.

Recent research findings also indicate that long-term use of marijuana produces changes in the brain similar to those seen after long-term use of other major drugs of abuse.

Effects on the Lungs

Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems as tobacco smokers. These individuals may have daily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, and more frequent chest colds. Continuing to smoke marijuana can lead to abnormal functioning of lung tissue injured or destroyed by marijuana smoke.

Regardless of the THC content, the amount of tar inhaled by marijuana smokers and the level of carbon monoxide absorbed are three to five times greater than among tobacco smokers. This may be due to the marijuana users' inhaling more deeply and holding the smoke in the lungs and because marijuana smoke is unfiltered.

Effects on Heart Rate and Blood Pressure

Recent findings indicate that smoking marijuana while shooting up cocaine has the potential to cause severe increases in heart rate and blood pressure. In one study, experienced marijuana and cocaine users were given marijuana alone, cocaine alone, and then a combination of both. Each drug alone produced cardiovascular effects; when they were combined, the effects were greater and lasted longer. The heart rate of the subjects in the study increased 29 beats per minute with marijuana alone and 32 beats per minute with cocaine alone. When the drugs were given together, the heart rate increased by 49 beats per minute, and the increased rate persisted for a longer time. The drugs were given with the subjects sitting quietly. In normal circumstances, an individual may smoke marijuana and inject cocaine and then do something physically stressful that may significantly increase the risk of overloading the cardiovascular system.

Effects of Heavy Marijuana Use on Learning and Social Behavior

A study of college students has shown that critical skills related to attention, memory, and learning are impaired among people who use marijuana heavily, even after discontinuing its use for at least 24 hours. Researchers compared 65 "heavy users," who had smoked marijuana a median of 29 of the past 30 days, and 64 "light users," who had smoked a median of 1 of the past 30 days. After a closely monitored 19- to 24-hour period of abstinence from marijuana and other illicit drugs and alcohol, the undergraduates were given several standard tests measuring aspects of attention, memory, and learning. Compared to the light users, heavy marijuana users made more errors and had more difficulty sustaining attention, shifting attention to meet the demands of changes in the environment, and in registering, processing, and using information. These findings suggest that the greater impairment among heavy users is likely due to an alteration of brain activity produced by marijuana.

Longitudinal research on marijuana use among young people below college age indicates those who used marijuana have lower achievement than the non-users, more acceptance of deviant behavior, more delinquent behavior and aggression, greater rebelliousness, poorer relationships with parents, and more associations with delinquent and drug-using friends.

Research also shows more anger and more regressive behavior (thumb sucking, temper tantrums) in toddlers whose parents use marijuana than among the toddlers of non-using parents.

Effects on Pregnancy

Any drug of abuse can affect a mother's health during pregnancy, making it a time when expectant mothers should take special care of themselves. Drugs of abuse may interfere with proper nutrition and rest, which can affect good functioning of the immune system. Some studies have found that babies born to mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy were smaller than those born to mothers who did not use the drug. In general, smaller babies are more likely to develop health problems.

A nursing mother who uses marijuana passes some of the THC to the baby in her breast milk. Research indicates that the use of marijuana by a mother during the first month of breast-feeding can impair the infant's motor development (control of muscle movement).

Addictive Potential

A drug is addicting if it causes compulsive, often uncontrollable drug craving, seeking, and use, even in the face of negative health and social consequences. Marijuana meets this criterion. More than 120,000 people enter treatment per year for their primary marijuana addiction. In addition, animal studies suggest marijuana causes physical dependence, and some people report withdrawal symptoms.

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Amphetamines / Stimulants

Street names: Speed, uppers, bennies, pep pills, dexies

Test: Amphetamine, AMP

Info: Drugs used to increase alertness, relieve fatigue, feel stronger and more decisive; used for euphoric effects or to counteract the "down" feeling of tranquilizers or alcohol.

Possible Effects
Increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils and decreased appetite; high doses may cause rapid or irregular heartbeat, loss of coordination, collapse; may cause perspiration, blurred vision, dizziness, a feeling of restlessness, anxiety, delusions
Symptoms of Overdose
Agitation, increase in body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death
Withdrawal Syndrome
Apathy, long periods of sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation
Indications of Possible Misuse
Excessive activity, talkativeness, irritability, argumentativeness or nervousness, Increased blood pressure or pulse rate, dilated pupils Long periods without sleeping or eating Euphoria

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Ecstasy / MDMD / Methamphetamines

Street names: Adam, XTC, Speed, Crystal Meth, Ice

Test: Methamphetamine, MAMP

Info: MDMA, called "Adam," "ecstasy," or "XTC" on the street, is a synthetic, psychoactive (mind-altering) drug with amphetamine-like and hallucinogenic properties. Its chemical structure (3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is similar to two other synthetic drugs, MDA and methamphetamine, which are known to cause brain damage.

Health Hazards

Beliefs about MDMA are reminiscent of the claims made about LSD in the 1950s and 1960s, which proved to be untrue. According to its proponents, MDMA can make people trust each other and can break down barriers between therapists and patients, lovers, and family members.

Many of the risks users face with MDMA use are similar to those found with the use of amphetamines and cocaine. They are:

  • Psychological difficulties, including confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety, and paranoia - during and sometimes weeks after taking MDMA (even psychotic episodes have been reported).
  • Physical symptoms such as muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, faintness, and chills or sweating.
  • Increases in heart rate and blood pressure, a special risk for people with circulatory or heart disease.
Recent research findings also link MDMA use to long-term damage to those parts of the brain critical to thought and memory. It is thought that the drug causes damage to the neurons that use the chemical serotonin to communicate with other neurons. In monkeys, exposure to MDMA for 4 days caused brain damage that was evident 6 to 7 years later. This study provides further evidence that people who take MDMA may be risking permanent brain damage.

Also, there is evidence that people who develop a rash that looks like acne after using MDMA may be risking severe side effects, including liver damage, if they continue to use the drug.

MDA, the parent drug of MDMA, is an amphetamine-like drug that has also been abused and is similar in chemical structure to MDMA. Research shows that MDA destroys serotonin-producing neurons in the brain, which play a direct role in regulating aggression, mood, sexual activity, sleep, and sensitivity to pain. It is probably this action on the serotonin system that gives MDA its purported properties of height-ened sexual experience, tranquility, and conviviality.

MDMA also is related in its structure and effects to methamphetamine, which has been shown to cause degeneration of neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine. Damage to these neurons is the underlying cause of the motor disturbances seen in Parkinson's disease. Symptoms of this disease begin with lack of coordination and tremors and can eventually result in a form of paralysis.

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Heroin / Opiate / Morphine

Street names: H, smack, junk, skag

Test: Morphine, MOR

Info: Heroin is a highly addictive drug, and its use is a serious problem in America. Recent studies suggest a shift from injecting heroin to snorting or smoking because of increased purity and the misconception that these forms of use will not lead to addiction.

Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder. Street names for heroin include "smack," "H," "skag," and "junk." Other names may refer to types of heroin produced in a specific geographical area, such as "Mexican black tar."

Health Hazards

Heroin abuse is associated with serious health conditions, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, collapsed veins, and infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.

The short-term effects of heroin abuse appear soon after a single dose and disappear in a few hours. After an injection of heroin, the user reports feeling a surge of euphoria ("rush") accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, a dry mouth, and heavy extremities. Following this initial euphoria, the user goes "on the nod," an alternately wakeful and drowsy state. Mental functioning becomes clouded due to the depression of the central nervous system. Long-term effects of heroin appear after repeated use for some period of time. Chronic users may develop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, cellulitis, and liver disease. Pulmonary complications, including various types of pneumonia, may result from the poor health condition of the abuser, as well as from heroin's depressing effects on respiration.

In addition to the effects of the drug itself, street heroin may have additives that do not readily dissolve and result in clogging the blood vessels that lead to the lungs, liver, kidneys, or brain. This can cause infection or even death of small patches of cells in vital organs.

Reports from SAMHSA's 1995 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), which collects data on drug-related hospital emergency room episodes and drug-related deaths from 21 metropolitan areas, rank heroin second as the most frequently mentioned drug in overall drug-related deaths. From 1990 through 1995, the number of heroin-related episodes doubled. Between 1994 and 1995, there was a 19 percent increase in heroin-related emergency department episodes.

Tolerance, Addiction, and Withdrawal

With regular heroin use, tolerance develops. This means the abuser must use more heroin to achieve the same intensity or effect. As higher doses are used over time, physical dependence and addiction develop. With physical dependence, the body has adapted to the presence of the drug and withdrawal symptoms may occur if use is reduced or stopped.

Withdrawal, which in regular abusers may occur as early as a few hours after the last administration, produces drug craving, restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea and vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), kicking movements ("kicking the habit"), and other symptoms. Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose and subside after about a week. Sudden withdrawal by heavily dependent users who are in poor health is occasionally fatal, although heroin withdrawal is considered much less dangerous than alcohol or barbiturate withdrawal.

Treatment

There is a broad range of treatment options for heroin addiction, including medications as well as behavioral therapies. Science has taught us that when medication treatment is integrated with other supportive services, patients are often able to stop heroin (or other opiate) use and return to more stable and productive lives.

In November 1997, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a Consensus Panel on Effective Medical Treatment of Heroin Addiction. The panel of national experts concluded that opiate drug addictions are diseases of the brain and medical disorders that indeed can be treated effectively. The panel strongly recommended (1) broader access to methadone maintenance treatment programs for people who are addicted to heroin or other opiate drugs; and (2) the Federal and State regulations and other barriers impeding this access be eliminated. This panel also stressed the importance of providing substance abuse counseling, psychosocial therapies, and other supportive services to enhance retention and successful outcomes in methadone maintenance treatment programs. The panel's full consensus statement is available by calling 1-888-NIH-CONSENSUS (1-888-644-2667) or by visiting the NIH Consensus Development Program Web site at http://consensus.nih.gov.

Methadone, a synthetic opiate medication that blocks the effects of heroin for about 24 hours, has a proven record of success when prescribed at a high enough dosage level for people addicted to heroin. LAAM, also a synthetic opiate medication for treating heroin addiction, can block the effects of heroin for up to 72 hours. Other approved medications are naloxone, which is used to treat cases of overdose, and naltrexone, both of which block the effects of morphine, heroin, and other opiates. Several other medications for use in heroin treatment programs are also under study.

There are many effective behavioral treatments available for heroin addiction. These can include residential and outpatient approaches. Several new behavioral therapies are showing particular promise for heroin addiction. Contingency management therapy uses a voucher-based system, where patients earn "points" based on negative drug tests, which they can exchange for items that encourage healthful living. Cognitive-behavioral interventions are designed to help modify the patient's thinking, expectancies, and behaviors and to increase skills in coping with various life stressors.

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PCP / Hallucinogen

Street names: Angel dust, ozone, rocket fuel, wack, crystal cyclone

Test: PCP

Info: PCP (phencyclidine) was developed in the 1950s as an intravenous anesthetic. Use of PCP in humans was discontinued in 1965, because it was found that patients often became agitated, delusional, and irrational while recovering from its anesthetic effects. PCP is illegally manufactured in laboratories and is sold on the street by such names as "angel dust," "ozone," "wack," and "rocket fuel." "Killer joints" and "crystal supergrass" are names that refer to PCP combined with marijuana. The variety of street names for PCP reflects its bizarre and volatile effects.

PCP is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water or alcohol. It has a distinctive bitter chemical taste. PCP can be mixed easily with dyes and turns up on the illicit drug market in a variety of tablets, capsules, and colored powders. It is normally used in one of three ways: snorted, smoked, or eaten. For smoking, PCP is often applied to a leafy material such as mint, parsley, oregano, or marijuana.

Health Hazards

PCP is addicting; that is, its use often leads to psychological dependence, craving, and compulsive PCP-seeking behavior. It was first introduced as a street drug in the 1960s and quickly gained a reputation as a drug that could cause bad reactions and was not worth the risk. Many people, after using the drug once, will not knowingly use it again. Yet others use it consistently and regularly. Some persist in using PCP because of its addicting properties. Others cite feelings of strength, power, invulnerability and a numbing effect on the mind as reasons for their continued PCP use.

Many PCP users are brought to emergency rooms because of PCP's unpleasant psychological effects or because of overdoses. In a hospital or detention setting, they often become violent or suicidal, and are very dangerous to themselves and to others. They should be kept in a calm setting and should not be left alone.

At low to moderate doses, physiological effects of PCP include a slight increase in breathing rate and a more pronounced rise in blood pressure and pulse rate. Respiration becomes shallow, and flushing and profuse sweating occur. Generalized numbness of the extremities and muscular incoordination also may occur. Psychological effects include distinct changes in body awareness, similar to those associated with alcohol intoxication. Use of PCP among adolescents may interfere with hormones related to normal growth and development as well as with the learning process.

At high doses of PCP, there is a drop in blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration. This may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, flicking up and down of the eyes, drooling, loss of balance, and dizziness. High doses of PCP can also cause seizures, coma, and death (though death more often results from accidental injury or suicide during PCP intoxication). Psychological effects at high doses include illusions and hallucinations. PCP can cause effects that mimic the full range of symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions, paranoia, disordered thinking, a sensation of distance from one's environment, and catatonia. Speech is often sparse and garbled.

People who use PCP for long periods report memory loss, difficulties with speech and thinking, depression, and weight loss. These symptoms can persist up to a year after cessation of PCP use. Mood disorders also have been reported. PCP has sedative effects, and interactions with other central nervous system depressants, such as alcohol and benzodiazepines, can lead to coma or accidental overdose.

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Valium / Benzodiazepines / Rohypnol (Date Rape)

Street names: V, Tranquilizers

Test: Benzodiazepines, BZO

Info: Benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZ-e-peens) belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system).

Some benzodiazepines are used to relieve anxiety. However, benzodiazepines should not be used to relieve nervousness or tension caused by the stress of everyday life.

Some benzodiazepines are used to treat insomnia (trouble in sleeping). However, if used regularly (for example, every day) for insomnia, they usually are not effective for more than a few weeks.

Many of the benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of other conditions, also. Diazepam is used to help relax muscles or relieve muscle spasm. Diazepam injection is used before some medical procedures to relieve anxiety and to reduce memory of the procedure. Chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, diazepam, and oxazepam are used to treat the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Alprazolam and clonazepam are used in the treatment of panic disorder. Clobazam, clonazepam, clorazepate, diazepam, and lorazepam are used in the treatment of certain convulsive (seizure) disorders, such as epilepsy. The benzodiazepines may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.

Benzodiazepines may be habit-forming (causing mental or physical dependence), especially when taken for a long time or in high doses.

Rohypnol has been a concern for the last few years because of its abuse as a "date rape" drug. People may unknowingly be given the drug which, when mixed with alcohol, can incapacitate and prevent a victim from resisting sexual assault. Also, Rohypnol may be lethal when mixed with alcohol and/or other depressants.

Rohypnol produces sedative-hypnotic effects including muscle relaxation and amnesia. In Miami, one of the first sites of Rohypnol abuse, poison control centers report an increase in withdrawal seizures among people addicted to Rohypnol.

Rohypnol is not approved for use in the United States and its importation is banned. Illicit use of Rohypnol began in Europe in the 1970s and started appearing in the United States in the early 1990s, where it became known as "rophies," "roofies," "roach," "rope," and the "date rape" drug.

There are two types of benzodiazepines:

MAJOR Benzodiazepines

These tranquilizers are known as "anti-psychotics", which are used for the treatment of mental illness.

MINOR Benzodiazepines

These tranquilizers decrease anxiety as well as induce sleep. They also act as a general anesthetic.

Benzodiazepines cause dependence and tolerance.

IMMEDIATE EFFECTS

The effects may appear rapidly and may last from hours to days.

  • reduce emotional reactions
  • reduce mental alertness
  • reduce attention span
  • produce a sense of relaxation and well-being
  • produce a "floating" sensation
  • depress heartbeat
  • depress breathing
  • induce long periods of sleep
  • reduce feelings of anxiety
  • cause drowsiness
  • cause mental confusio
  • cause physical unsteadiness

LONG-TERM EFFECTS

  • increased aggressiveness
  • physical dependence
  • withdrawal reactions
  • increased tolerance
  • severe depression
  • tolerance and dependence

TOXIC EFFECTS

If benzodiazepines are used in combination with other drugs, overdose or death could occur.

SIDE EFFECTS

  • skin rashes
  • nausea
  • dizziness

Benzodiazepines disrupt the psycho-motor, intellectual, and perceptual functions.

This drug accumulates in the body tissue after prolonged use.

BENZODIAZEPINES AND PREGNANCY

Benzodiazepines may cause congenital defects such as:

  • cleft lip
  • cleft palate

Infants may experience withdrawal symptoms such as:

  • respiratory distress
  • feeding difficulties
  • disturbed sleeping patterns
  • decreased responsiveness
  • sweating
  • irritability
  • fever

Some benzodiazepines accumulate in higher concentrations in the bloodstream and organs of the infant than in the mother.

Benzodiazepines may accumulate in higher concentrations in the breast milk than in the bloodstream.

Dependence may occur from prescribed dosages.

Tolerance and dependence can occur within ten to fourteen weeks of use.

Large doses of benzodiazepines are required by the user to maintain the feeling of well-being.

Dependence is visible if the user has a craving for the drug, tolerance increases, or experiences withdrawal symptoms. If benzodiazepines are used for four to six weeks, then abruptly stopped, withdrawal symptoms are likely to occur.

WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

  • tremors
  • agitation
  • stomach aches
  • sweating
  • disturbed sleep
  • irritability
  • These symptoms can last from two to four weeks.

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Club Drugs:

MDMA: methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Ecstasy, X, XTC, Adam

A stimulant similar to methamphetamine, MDMA is usually taken orally as a tablet. It causes increased heart rate and blood pressure, and may lead to an elevation of body temperature that causes kidney and cardiovascular failure. When combined with alcohol, MDMA can be extremely dangerous, sometimes fatal. Chronic abuse of MDMA may produce long-lasting neurotoxic effects in the brain.

GHB: gamma-hydroxybutyrate-Liquid Ecstasy, Georgia Home Boy, G

A clear odorless liquid, GHB is a central nervous system depressant and has been associated with poisonings, overdoses, and date rape. GHB overdose can lead rapidly to loss of consciousness, coma, and death. The purity and strength of individual doses of the drug can vary greatly, making overdoses likely.

Ketamine: K, Special K, Vitamin K, Cat Valium

Ketamine is a veterinary anesthetic that produces dissociative dream-like or hallucinatory effects. The drug is used as a liquid applied to marijuana or tobacco products or as a white powder that is snorted like cocaine. At high doses, ketamine produces delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function, and sometimes-fatal respiratory effects.

Rohypnol: flunitrazepam-Roofies, Rophie, Roche, Forget-me

A benzodiazepine sedative similar to Valium and Xanax, flunitrazepam is not approved for prescription use in the United States. The drug is taken orally in tablet form or dissolved in beverages. Because the drug is odorless and tasteless and produces amnesia, it can be administered to a person without his or her knowledge and has been associated with date rape and other sexual assaults.

Methamphetamine: Meth, Speed, Ice, Glass, Crystal, Crank

Methamphetamine, an odorless white crystalline powder, is a highly addictive stimulant that can be snorted, smoked, injected, or taken orally. The drug produces increased levels of activity, excited speech, and decreased appetite. Methamphetamine is a neurotoxin associated with long-lasting effects on the dopamine transporter system as well as with other dangerous health effects including aggression, violence, memory loss, psychotic behavior, and cardiac damage.

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: LSD-Acid, Blotter, Cubes, Dots, L, Sugar

LSD is a powerful hallucinogen that is taken orally, usually on squares of blotter paper, sugar cubes, or pills that have absorbed the liquid drug. The drug produces profound abnormalities in sensory perception, including distortions of sound and sight, and emotional effects that create rapid mood swings ranging from intense fear to euphoria.

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Barbituates

Street names: Barbs, red devils, yellow jackets, pinks.

Test: Barbiturates, BAR

Barbituates, are a class of central nervous system depressants. Phenobarbital is a long acting barbituate derivative that has been used as a daytime sedative and very extensively as an anticonvulsant. Phenobarbital and secobarbital are two examples of a short acting barbituate sedative. Abuse of barbituates can lead not only to impaired motor coordination and mental disorder, but also to respiratory collapse coma and even death. Barbituates are taken orally, rectally, or by intravenous and intramuscular injections. Short acting barbituates will generally be excreted in urine as metabolites, while long-acting barbituates will primarily appear unchanged.

Usual Form

Multi-colored tablets and capsules.

How Ingested

  • Swallowed
  • Injected

Physiological Symptoms

  • slurred speech
  • shallow breathing
  • sluggishness
  • fatigue
  • disorientation
  • lack of coordination
  • dilated pupils

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